The monument to Tsar Alexander III was erected in honor of the completion of the Great Siberian Railway, which connected the eastern outskirts with the center of the country. Since ancient times, Alexander III has been considered the patron saint of the Siberian construction site.
In 1902, the All-Russian competition for the erection of a memorial monument was announced in Irkutsk. The bronze figure of Alexander III on a large granite pedestal, authored by sculptor R.R. Bach, became the best and won the competition. The grand opening of the monument took place in August 1908.
The dark bronze statue was cast by metallurgists from St. Petersburg. Alexander III was not represented in royal attire, but in wide trousers and in the ataman uniform of Siberian Cossacks. On the three faces of the monument you can see bronze sculptural portraits of famous historical figures who left a noticeable mark in the formation and development of Siberia - this is the conqueror of Siberia Ermak, Governor General M. Speransky and Governor General N. Muravyov, on the fourth side there is a double-headed eagle holding in its beak a decree issued on the beginning of the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
The figure of the emperor stood until 1920. After the monument was removed, only the pedestal remained as a highly artistic part. The statue, taken apart in parts, stood for several years in the courtyard of the city museum. After some time, the monument was reconstructed according to the project of architect V. Shmatkov. Then a pyramidal concrete spire was completed and the monument became known as the Monument to the Discoverers of Siberia.
In the early 1990s the idea of reconstructing the memorial monument to Alexander III was born. In April 2002, the Irkutsk City Executive Committee decided to restore the monument to the emperor. The bronze sculpture was recreated and cast in St. Petersburg according to the project of the sculptor A. Charkin. In October 2003, the king’s figure was solemnly returned to the granite pedestal. The total height of the monument is 13.45 m.
What did Alexander III remember
The reign of Emperor Alexander III was quite calm. The people even called the tsar a peacemaker, because in the years that he was in power, Russia did not participate in any war. Initially, he was prepared for military service, but by the will of fate, he was on the throne. The emperor was distinguished by high growth, excellent sense of humor, and high working capacity. He did not like excesses, and in his personal life was unusually modest. The emperor was a strong and courageous man, he loved fishing.
In 1888 a terrible event occurred concerning the royal family. When traveling from the south, their train crashed, as a result of which many people who accompanied the king were injured. However, the emperor himself, his wife and children safely got out of the wrecked car. Eyewitnesses claimed that Alexander III had a roof on his shoulders so that it would not crush his family. After the disaster, the emperor began to complain of back pain. Doctors diagnosed him with kidney disease, which progressed every year. In 1894, the king died, and his son ascended the throne - Nicholas II.
History of the monument
The monument to Alexander 3 in Irkutsk appeared at the beginning of the 20th century. It symbolized gratitude to the tsar for the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. In order to choose the best composition, in 1902 the All-Russian competition was announced, as a result the project of R. R. Bach won. The installation of the monument to Alexander 3 in Irkutsk took place in 1908.
However, a revolution soon occurred, and ideology in the country completely changed. The memory of the kings no longer needed the new government. In 1920, the monument was dismantled. His further fate is unknown, but according to one version he was sent for re-melting, as a result of which a monument to Vladimir Lenin appeared, which to this day can be seen in this city. The pedestal of the monument to Alexander 3 in Irkutsk was empty for many years, but in 1963 a concrete spire dedicated to the pioneers of Siberia was installed on it.
Other monuments to Alexander III
By the way, the monument to the emperor in Moscow, which was located near the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, was also destroyed. The sculpture was a figure of Tsar Alexander III, sitting on a throne in the mantle. The imperial crown flaunted on his head, and in his hands he held a scepter and power. This monument was dismantled one of the very first.
Bronze Alexander III on horseback was mounted in 1909 in St. Petersburg. This monument did not appeal to most members of the royal family, since the emperor was depicted without any idealization. He sat heavily on a horse, was dressed in baggy clothes. In 1937, this monument was also dismantled and deposited in the Russian Museum.
Monument in Irkutsk today
After the collapse of the USSR, the time has come for change. Old monuments and cultural sites began to be restored. The initiator of the casting of the monument to Alexander 3 in Irkutsk was the management of the East Siberian Railway. It also allocated money for this procedure. As a result, in 2003 the concrete spire was removed from the pedestal, and Alexander 3 again appeared before the eyes of the residents of Irkutsk. The bronze emperor has a weight of about 4 tons. He is dressed in the uniform of a Siberian Cossack chieftain. The bronze images of outstanding personalities are cast on the monument: Mikhail Speransky, Ataman Ermak Timofeevich, Count N. N. Muravyov-Amursky. On one of the faces is an eagle that holds a royal document in its paws.
The monument to Alexander III near Angara was originally a symbol of gratitude to the emperor for the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, because it was initiated by his will. This highway allowed connecting Moscow with the largest cities of Siberia and the Far East, which had a positive effect on the development of the country as a whole. Despite the fact that during the reign of the Bolsheviks the monument was dismantled, bronze Alexander III reappeared in Irkutsk in 2003. Many residents of the city believe that his return was logical, because the history of the country cannot be simply crossed out.
Sibiryak - 08/07/2014 09/27/2018
Irkutsk monument to the emperor Peacemaker - Alexander III It was installed in 1908, in Irkutsk. This piece of architecture is one of three monuments to the emperor dedicated to the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railway. The monument was erected as a result of a competition held in 1902.
Monument to Emperor Alexander III
In honor of the completion of the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, a decision was made to erect a monument to the Tsar-Peacemaker, as a gratitude for the decision he made on the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. At the all-Russian competition in 1902, approval was received by the project of Robert Romanovich Bach. Bach's idea was recognized as the best, and for this he was awarded. The results of the contest were written: “On March 2, 1902, in St. Petersburg, at the Kushelev Gallery of the Academy of Arts, Grand Dukes and Princesses examined the exhibited models of the monument to Alexander III being planned for installation in Irkutsk. The inspection was attended by Minister of the Interior D. S. Sipyagin, Irkutsk Governor-General A. I. Panteleev, Chairman of the Competition Commission Count P. Yu. Suzor. The first-degree prize was awarded to R. R. Bach, with the approval of the Sovereign Emperor Nicholas II, who introduced some changes to the project. ”
By the beginning of 1903, a committee was raised in Irkutsk to raise funds for the construction of a monument to the Russian emperor. He collected about one hundred and fifty thousand rubles. And in the summer of that year, the foundation ceremony began.
Already in 1908, the monument was inaugurated. Andrey Nikolayevich Selivanov, Governor General of Eastern Siberia, took part in the opening of the monument.
The project of Robert Bach was a 5.5-meter figure of the emperor, towering on a granite pedestal.
On the faces of the pedestal are bronze portraits of prominent historical figures who made a significant contribution to the development and development of Siberia. Polished blocks made of Finnish granite were imported from the city of Ganta. The bas-reliefs were made in St. Petersburg.
On the western side, facing the Angara River, is shown the Governor General of Eastern Siberia, Count Nikolai Nikolayevich Muravyov-Amursky.
Ermak Timofeevich is proudly looking to the north - a person whose heroism can be described and described in literary works, filmed in cinema. It was he who first began the process of annexing Siberia to the Russian state.
On the verge facing south, Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky is depicted, who was the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia from 1819 to 1821, and also carried out successful reforms in the region.
In the east - the coat of arms of the Russian Empire - a two-headed eagle, in its clutches a scroll, a royal rescript, given in the name of the Heir to the Cesarevich Nikolai Alexandrovich with the words:Your Imperial Highness, having arrived, after a long voyage, to the borders of the Russian land, you, according to My command, laid the foundation for the construction of the continuous Siberian railway planned by Me in Vladivostok on the 19th day of May 1891. Now, by appointing you Chairman of the Committee of the Siberian Railway, I instruct you to bring this matter of peace and the educational task of Russia in the East to an end. May the Almighty help to carry out the enterprise, which I take so close to my heart, together with those assumptions that should contribute to the settlement and industrial development of Siberia. I firmly believe that you will justify my hopes and my dear Russia. Sincerely sincerely loving you, Alexander. "
Coats of arms of Siberia, Irkutsk and Yenisei provinces and Yakutsk region are also depicted on the corners of the pedestal. To the right of the double-headed eagle is the coat of arms of Irkutsk: Babr, with a sable in its teeth.
Monument to Emperor Alexander III in Irkutsk
After the 1917 revolution, with the Bolsheviks coming to power, the country was enveloped in a red regime, and then a civil war. And in 1920, on May Day holidays, a bronze statue of the king bronze inscriptions on polished granite "Emperor Alexander III”And“ Grateful Siberia ”were removed, and the parts of the statue themselves were in the territory of the geographical museum for some time. The further fate is unknown. They say that they were melted down for a monument to Lenin. In 1963, on the pedestal, where the statue of the Emperor once stood, was installed monument “Pioneers of Siberia” according to the project of the Irkutsk architect Viktor Petrovich Shmatkov.
After the collapse of the union, many of the destroyed monuments began to be restored over time. The decision to restore the monument to Tsar Peacemaker was made by the East Siberian Railway and approved by the Irkutsk City Executive Committee. According to the project of sculptor Charkin Albert Serafimovich, a bronze statue was restored and cast, which turned out to be slightly smaller than the previous one. The monument reaches five meters in height. The restoration was carried out at the expense of the East Siberian Railway. Made it at the St. Petersburg plant "Monument sculpture." In the fall of 2003, when the Transsiberian celebrated its 100th anniversary, it was erected on a pedestal and the monument was inaugurated. And Alexander III reigned in his place again, filling with his greatness the whole district, and also looking proudly into the distance - at his brainchild - the Trans-Siberian.
Monument to Emperor Alexander III in Irkutsk
On the faces of the pedestal are bronze portraits of prominent historical figures who made a significant contribution to the development and development of Siberia. Polished blocks are made of Finnish granite and crafted in a Gantt workshop.
On the northern part of the monument is depicted Ermak Timofeevich, a person who made a great contribution to the annexation of Siberia to the Russian state.
On the verge facing south, Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky is depicted, who was from 1819 to 1821 the Governor General of Eastern Siberia and carried out successful reforms in the region.
On the eastern side is the coat of arms of the Russian Empire - a two-headed eagle, in the clutches of which is a scroll, a royal royal script given to the heir, Tsarevich Nikolai Alexandrovich:
|Your Imperial Highness, having arrived, after a long voyage, to the borders of the Russian land, you, according to My command, laid the foundation for the construction of the continuous Siberian railway planned by Me in Vladivostok on the 19th day of May 1891. Now, by appointing you Chairman of the Committee of the Siberian Railway, I instruct you to bring this matter of peace and the educational task of Russia in the East to an end. May the Almighty help to carry out the enterprise, which I take so close to my heart, together with those assumptions that should contribute to the settlement and industrial development of Siberia. I firmly believe that you will justify my hopes and my dear Russia. Sincerely sincerely loving you, Alexander.|
On the corners of the pedestal are the coats of arms of Siberia, the Irkutsk and Yenisei provinces, and the Yakutsk region. To the right of the double-headed eagle is the coat of arms of Irkutsk: babr with a sable in its mouth. The weight of the bronze figure is 4 tons, height - 5.5 meters.
The Russian emperor himself is dressed in the form of a Cossack chieftain of Siberian troops.
In honor of the completion of the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, a decision was made to erect a monument to the Tsar in gratitude for the decision on construction. In connection with the decision in 1902, an all-Russian competition was announced. Soon approval was received by the project of Robert Romanovich Bach, which was recognized as the best, and for which Bach was awarded a prize of two thousand rubles. The results of the competition were written:
|On March 2, 1902, in St. Petersburg, at the Kushelev Gallery of the Academy of Arts, Grand Dukes and Princesses examined the exhibited models of the monument to Alexander III being planned for installation in Irkutsk. The inspection was attended by Minister of the Interior D. S. Sipyagin, Irkutsk Governor-General A. I. Panteleev, Chairman of the Competition Commission Count P. Yu. Suzor. The 1st degree prize was awarded to R. R. Bach, with the approval of the Sovereign Emperor Nicholas II, who introduced some changes to the project.|
By the beginning of 1903, the committee established in Irkutsk to raise funds for the construction of a monument to the Russian emperor had collected about one hundred and fifty thousand rubles. In the summer of the same year, a foundation-laying ceremony began:
|On June 22, local garrison troops and students of the city were lined up, at 12 o’clock a procession arrived from the Mikhailo-Arkhangelsk church. Then His Eminence Tikhon celebrated the Liturgy. After that, the former Governor-General of Eastern Siberia, a member of the State Council A.I. Panteleev, the post of Governor-General V.N. Bulatov and the mayor B.P. Shostakovich followed to the place of the bookmark. A solemn prayer began. A silver board with the corresponding inscription was laid. After a three-time performance of a national anthem covered in shouts of “Hurray!”, The troops marched in ceremonial fashion.|
In 1908, the monument was inaugurated.
In 1920, on May Day holidays, according to the Decree on Monuments of the Republic, the bronze statue of the tsar and bronze inscriptions on polished granite “Emperor Alexander III” and “Grateful Siberia” were removed, and the parts of the statue themselves were located on the territory of the East Siberian Department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. Their further fate is unknown. According to the main version, it was sent for re-melting, after which a monument to Lenin was cast in the 1940s, which now rises in the area of the Irkutsk hydroelectric station. The pedestal without the emperor stood for 43 years.During the years of World War II, when the mass re-creation of the spiritual values associated with Russian history began, the attitude towards many figures of pre-revolutionary history began to change. Then, in 1947, they began to consider the option of installing a monument to the Russian explorer and navigator Grigory Ivanovich Shelikhov in honor of the 200th anniversary of his birth and recognition of his merits in the founding of Russian America. The idea to install it in Irkutsk arose due to the fact that Shelikhov was buried there. The opening of the monument was planned by 1950, funding was estimated at 400 thousand rubles. However, the sculpture did not reach Irkutsk and was transferred by the Ministry of Culture to another city.
In 1963, a concrete pyramidal spire was installed on the pedestal of the former monument, which they began to call the monument “Pioneers of Siberia” according to the project of the Irkutsk architect Viktor Petrovich Shmatkov.
After the collapse of the USSR, the destroyed monuments began to be restored over time. In 1995, the initiative to restore the monument was made by Viktor Bronstein and Gennady Gaida, but did not receive permission from the authorities. On April 24, 2003, the decision to restore the monument was made by the East Siberian Railway and approved by the Irkutsk City Council. According to the project of the sculptor of the Russian Academy of Arts, Charkin Albert Serafimovich, a bronze statue was restored and cast, which reaches five meters in height. The restoration was carried out at the expense of the East Siberian Railway. Made it at the St. Petersburg plant "Monument sculpture". In June 2003, a concrete spire was dismantled and distributed to everyone. In autumn 2003, on the centennial of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the statue was erected on a pedestal and the monument was inaugurated. The opening ceremony was attended by Governor of the Irkutsk Region Boris Govorin, President of the Republic of Buryatia Leonid Potapov.
The monument was vandalized at least five times. The restoration of the monument after vandalism was carried out by the Irkutsk sculptor and caster George Koldushko.
In 2016, the reconstruction of the monument began.
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A monument dedicated to the famous Russian emperor appeared in 1908. A creative competition was held among architects throughout the country to create a sculpture for Alexander III. But the stone composition did not last long, it was demolished already in 1920 by the decision of the Soviet government. The liquidation took place according to a decree. The sculpture was restored only in 2003.
The lower part of the monument is a portrait of outstanding personalities made in bronze. Figures represented in the sculptural composition played a significant role in the stages of development and development of the Siberian region. The blocks of the monument are made of smooth granite stone of Finnish production and have been processed in the Gant workshop. The image of the Siberian governor Count Nikolai Nikolayevich Muravyov-Amursky is located on the western part of the pedestal. The northern side is dedicated to the famous Cossack chieftain Ermak Timofeevich. It was he who had a decisive influence in the annexation of Siberia to Russia.
Portrait of a reformer and governor-general Mikhail Speransky, who held such a high position in the 1920s. XIX century, located on the south side of the composition.
Mandatory state symbols are applied on the eastern side of the pedestal and is a picture of a double-headed eagle. He holds in his clutches a rescript on behalf of the king. The document defines as the next ruler Nikolai Alexandrovich.
Coats of arms of Siberian provinces - the Yenisei, Irkutsk and Yakutsk Regions are located at the corners of the state symbol. Here you can also see the coat of arms of Irkutsk, representing a babr (an old Russian image of a panther, a tiger) holding a sable in its mouth. The bronze figure of Alexander III rises five and a half meters and has an impressive weight that reaches 4 tons. The ruler is dressed in the uniform of the Siberian Cossack chieftain.